Mar Vista Animal Medical Center

3850 Grand View Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90066


Welcome to the Mar Vista Animal Medical Center

Pet Web Library

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Our hospital strives to provide informational materials on some of the most common medical concerns of pet dogs & cats.

We have adapted this material to the World Wide Web so that the entire global community may benefit.

Topics are arranged below alphabetically.

Items with "External Link" or "In the Surgery Suite" or "In The Vaccine Mezzanine" on the left side of the links below are not actually in the Pet Web Library section, but have links here for your convenience.

While on any page in the Pet Web Library section, however, you will only have links to all the other pages in the Pet Web Library.

To go to the selected pages in The Surgery Suite or The Vaccine Mezzanine that are listed on this page, either come back to this page or go to those respective sections (either from the home page, or by clicking on "Surgery" or "Vaccination" on the bottom frame).

Information on a wide variety of veterinary drugs can be found in The Pharmacy Center.

Click on any of the links below, or search our entire site: 

Search Site for Keyword info :  


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | YZ




Actinic (Solar) Dermatitis

Sun-bathing is fun but not necessarily safe. The sun emits harmful UV light which can not only cause sunburn but can induce skin cancer. If you have a sun-bathing dog, you probably need to know about what can happen and how to prevent it.


Addison's Disease

Also called "Hypoadrenocorticism," this condition results from a deficiency of the hormones that enable us to adapt to stress. Signs can be vague or can culminate in a circulatory crisis. Learn more here.


Airborne Allergies
(Atopic Dermatitis)

We get hay fever; dogs get itchy skin. This condition is usually seasonal (but not always), and many treatments are available. Find out the causes and what you can do to relieve your pet’s discomfort.


Alopecia X

The name of this condition has changed over the years, finally settling on a term that reflects our lack of knowledge. This condition represents a non-inflammatory hormonally related hair loss in the Nordic breeds. At this time, therapy involves step by step trials, usually starting with neutering. What do the Veterinary Dermatologists tend to agree upon? Read this page for some general recommendations.


Anal Sacs

Got a pet who is scooting? Smelling a fishy foul odor? Noticing some licking under the tail? This page should explain just what is going on.



Reduced appetite or even total loss of appetite is an important symptom of illness. It may take time to work out the cause of the illness and in that time it is important to nutritionally support the sick pet. This article reviews several techniques for getting nourishment in the pet who is unenthusiastic about eating.


Arthritis / Joint Disease Information Center

Arthritis and joint disease are common problems with many of our dogs, especially as they grow older. As this is a complicated topic, we have begun to develop an information center, with separate pages devoted to such issues as the normal joint and common medications used to treat this problem.



Aspergillus is a fungus with which no one likes to admit familiarity. Aspergillus species are lacy, almost dandelion-like molds that colonize foods left out too long (or any other opportunistic locations). Unfortunately, they also sometimes colonize our pet's bodies (usually a dog's nose). New treatments have made this very difficult condition manageable in many cases.


Asthma (Feline)

If your cat needs to open its mouth to breathe or if its abdomen moves excessively as it breathes (and its not purring), then it may be suffering from feline asthma. Here is some information as to the causes and possible treatments.


Babesia Infection (Canine)

Ticks are famous for carrying Lyme's disease but there are far worse things a tick can carry. Babesia is a common and lethal canine disease worldwide but is not as well known in the U.S. (though we certainly have it here). This page has more information about this blood parasite and its disease which is similar to human malaria.


Bartonella and
Cat Scratch Disease

Cat Scratch Disease, often called Cat Scratch Fever (thanks to Ted Nugent), is generally a self-limiting infection of people recently scratched by cats, though classically it is actually fleas that carry the infection. Whether cats get sick from this infection or are just carriers is a highly controversial subject. This is a human disease about which all cat caretakers should have some basic knowledge.


Biliary Mucocoele

Bile is the fluid made by the liver and stored in the gall bladder and secreted into the intestinal tract to assist with digestion. The ability of the bile to flow is crucial to this operation and, as anyone with gall stones will attest, if the bile doesn't flow discomfort results. If the bile duct actually obstructs, rupture of the gall bladder can occur and a surgical emergency results. The biliary mucocoele is basically a gall bladder filled with a thick wad of mucus rather than the slippery bile that it is designed for. Oddly, this condition, now fairly common in the scope of liver disease in dogs, was virtually unknown before the 1990's.


Birth of Kittens

Birds do it. Bees do it. Even little cats do it. And what should you do when they've done it? Here is a primer.


Birth of Puppies

Preparing for the pitter-patter of little paws? Here are some tips on what to expect and what to watch for (or check out the sister page on Care of the Pregnant Dog).


Bladder Stones

Struvite, oxalate, urate, silicate, cysteine and combinations thereof.  We will soon have an information center up explaining the where’s and what’s of bladder stones in dogs and cats. For now the canine calcium oxalate page is available.



A serious, life-threatening emergency. Learn to recognize the signs to get your dog to the Vet’s in time to possibly save it’s life.


Brachycephalic Breeds

“Brachycephalic” means short-faced and short-faced breeds of dogs have their own share of unique problems. Be familiar with what they are.


Chronic Bronchitis (Canine)

Coughing occasionally is one thing, but fits of coughing month after month is a chronic problem. There are many reasons why a dog might develop an ongoing cough but after ruling out heart disease, tracheal collapse, and other problems, it may turn out that the problem is wear and tear on the airways, leading to a vicious cycle of inflammation. Visit this page for more information.


Brucellosis (Canine)

Most of us have spayed or neutered dogs and have never heard of this disease. Those who breed dogs, though, need to know all about it as it is an important venereal disease in dogs. Exposure to an infected dog's secretions (cleaning up urine or fetal membranes after a litter is delivered) can transmit the disease to humans. Every breeding dog needs to be tested for this disease regularly. Need more information? This page has it.



Cataracts are an important cause of blindness in the dog. Through special surgery, it may be possible to restore vision. Would you recognize a cataract if you saw one in your cat or dog? Click here to find out (or learn more about causes and treatments).


Cerebellar Hypoplasia

The cerebellum is the part of the central nervous system involved in the involuntary coordination of movement so that one can move in a coordinated fashion even on uneven terrain, successfully maintaining orientation of up versus down, without falling. When a pregnant cat is infected with the feline distemper virus or vaccinated with a live vaccine during pregnancy, the kittens do not develop normal cerebellar structure. What does this mean for the cat? Click here and find out.


Chocolate Toxicity

We love our chocolate whether we are drinking it in cocoa, licking it an ice cream cone, or gobbling a chocolate bar. Unfortunately, our pets want to share and it is important to realize that chocolate has toxic properties as well as tasty ones. Keep candy out of your pet's reach no matter how tempting it is to share and read this article for signs to watch for.


Cholangiohepatitis (Feline)

Cholangiohepatitis is the second most common cause of liver failure in the cat: the other three most common causes being hepatic lipidosis, lymphoma, and feline infectious peritonitis. If your cat is in liver failure, these are the four conditions to know about. Click here to read about this one.


Cherry Eye
In the Surgery Suite

Has a red lump suddenly appeared in the corner of your pet’s eye? What does it mean and what should you do? Click here to go to The Surgery Suite and find out.



Fluid accumulation in the chest takes space away from the inflating lung. Breathing becomes effortful and the patient can even die. Chylothorax refers to the chest filling with lymphatic fluid. This page will give you information and treatment options.


Clostridium Perfringens

When pets get chronic diarrhea, one of the tests that sooner or later comes up is the test for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium and it produces an unpleasant toxin. Read the details here.



Coccidia are single-celled parasites that commonly infect young animals housed in groups. It causes a bloody diarrhea that can be severe enough to be life threatening for a very small animal. This is a very common infection; we probably diagnose several cases each week. Click here to find out more about this strange parasite and how to cure it.


Cognitive Dysfunction

Senior dogs and cats have special ailments and concerns for just about every organ system in the body and the brain is no exception. As with people, there is a cognitive dysfunction syndrome (similar to Alzheimer's disease) that is common as age advances. Can we cure it? Sadly, no, but we can make improvements and slow the process. For more information read this page.



“Colitis” means inflammation of the colon and that spells diarrhea, often with fresh blood or mucus, straining and discomfort for the pet as well as a mess to clean up. We have received many requests to add a page on this condition, and here it is.


Constipation & Megacolon

Difficulty in passing stool can mean extra effort (constipation) or complete impossibility (obstipation). Management can be surgical or with medication, depending on severity. Find out the difference, and find out what Megacolon is, too, on this informative page.


Corneal Ulcer

A scratch or scrape on the eye is extremely painful, causing squinting, redness and excess tears. What do you need to know about taking care of a pet with this condition? Click here to read about the diagnosis and treatment of corneal ulcers and erosions.



Cryptosporidiosis is an infection of newly recognized significance in pet animals though we have known since the 1980's of its dire consequences in immune-suppressed humans. This single-celled parasite causes chronic diarrhea in dogs and cats though most infected pets do not show symptoms. This is a parasite that anyone with a suppressed immune system should be well aware of. Click here to read more.


Cushing's Disease Information Center

Excess thirst, excess urination, excess appetite, poor hair coat and a pot-bellied appearance. This is a classical disease for which lots of information is available. We have attempted to include an explanation of this complicated problem and all the latest information.


Cytauxzoonosis in the Cat

Cytauxzoonosis is not a problem in our area, but we have received many requests to include this terrible infection in our library so we are adding it. This infection is almost always fatal approximately three weeks after an infected tick bites the cat, though thankfully a less virulent strain of infection seems to be emerging. The infection is most common in the Southern U.S. where anyone who has an outdoor cat near a wooded area should be aware of this infection. Visit this page for more information.


Demodectic Mange

This condition is also called “Red Mange.” It is not contagious, but does have a hereditary component. Read about options for treatment.


Diabetes Mellitus

This Informational Site for a very complicated disease is not yet as complete as we intend for it to be, with pages on the causes and treatments, but currently several pages do have active links. Come visit the pages that have been finished.


Diarrhea in Puppies/Kittens

Bacterial diarrheas are generally a nuisance for the adult animal but can be lethal to a small puppy, kitten, or even a human baby. Most of these problems stem from contaminated food or fecal contaminated environment.


Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

Dogs nose around in all sorts of things but they should not get crusty or ulcerated noses. When they do, there is generally a disease afoot and biopsy may well be needed to determine what is going on. Discoid Lupus, or DLE, is a common disease of the leather of the nose. Thankfully, it is usually easily treated and there are many options. Click here for more information.


Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, AKA "DIC," is a terrible complication of numerous already serious diseases. It involves simultaneous blood clotting and bleeding and has disastrous ramifications. Want to know more? Visit this page to find out.



Kidney failure in dogs and cats is an unfortunately common disease usually treated with extra fluids given intravenously or under the skin. Sometimes actual dialysis is the best choice, though there are only a few locations in the U.S. equipped for this procedure.


Dry Eye (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)

Imagine what your eyes would feel like if they couldn’t produce adequate tears. Unfortunately, many dogs (and some cats) are afflicted with this discomfort every moment of every day. Would you know if your pet was one of them? Visit this page for details.


Ear Infections

Did you know the most common cause of recurrent ear infections is allergic skin disease? What do you do to keep the ear scratching & head shaking from becoming chronic? Click here and find out.


Ear Mites

This annoying parasite is a common source of ear infections, especially in cats and kittens. Where do they come from? How do you get rid of them? Visit here to find out.


Ehrlichia Infection (Canine)

Ehrlichia are intracellular blood parasites spread by ticks. Recent advances in molecular biology have revealed that infection is more widespread than previously believed and canine (and even feline and human disease) is emerging Ticks are responsible for the spread of numerous unpleasant infections; For more information about this one, read on.


Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex

Feline allergic skin disease can take some highly ulcerative forms, especially involving the upper lip. EGC is a hard condition to explain, especially since it has several forms, but we’ll give it a try. Click here to see how well we do.


Care of the Esophagostomy Tube

The Esophagostomy or "E tube" can be not only a life-saving device but also a time and frustration-saving device if you have a pet that will not eat adequately and needs nutritional support. The E tube is comfortable and easy to use and, while it can stay in place for months on end, it is meant as a bridge from illness to wellness. This page will provide instructions on how to manage the tube.


Euthanasia at our Hospital

No one really likes to talk about this subject but eventually most of us have questions about how this is done, how to make this decision, and how to cope. There is actually an extensive body of writing on this subject. Feel free to use this page as a starting point and follow the links for more information.


Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

You are what you eat. Well, at least those of us with normal exocrine pancreatic function are, anyway. Those without digestive enzymes only dream of being what they eat. Instead, they are skinny, gassy, and have diarrhea, and 80% are German Shepherds. Fortunately this is a treatable condition. Check out this page or details.


False Pregnancy (Canine)

A heat cycle is a normal phenomenon for an unspayed female dog but false pregnancy is only normal to a point. Some females will "adopt" a stuffed toy, give milk, even go into labor. How does this happen and how do we make it stop? Click here to find out.


Feline Aortic Thromboembolism (Fate)

FATE stands for Feline Aortic Thromboembolism, a very serious condition where a blood clot lodges in such a way as to cut off circulation to both rear legs. This abnormal clot is almost always the result of serious heart disease; still, despite what sounds like a total disaster, half the cats receiving treatment survive to go home. FATE comes on suddenly and is almost always the very first sign that a cat has heart disease. Visit this page to learn more about this condition.


Owning a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Positive (FIV+) Cat

The American Association of Feline Practitioners recommends that all outdoor cats be tested annually for this virus. There are plenty of areas where one can get the basics on this virus from its recent discovery in 1986 to the controversial vaccine released Fall of 2002. But what do you need to know when your cat tests positive? This site addresses the issues faced by the owner of an FIV+ cat plus includes the basics of the feline immunodeficiency virus itself.


Feline Infectious Anemia (Hemobartonella Felis)

Gene sequencing may have led to renaming both this disease and its causative organism but the sickness remains the same by any name. This infection results in parasitism of a cat's red blood cells and subsequent massive destruction of those red blood cells by the cat's own body. Blood sucking parasites such as fleas appear to be important in transmission. This page has details on this condition.


Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
In the Vaccine Mezzanine

FIP is a very serious disease. There are no good vaccines, no good test, no good treatment and no cure. Click here for our resource guide to information on this disease with links to several good external web pages discussing various aspects of FIP.


Feline Leukemia Virus
External Link

Feline leukemia virus, a retrovirus, is a common infection of cats. It is the cause of more cat deaths, directly or indirectly, than any other organism and is widespread in the cat population. This external link covers the facts from the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine.


Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

“Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease” was formerly known as “FUS” and is actually a set of symptoms that can’t be classified as a real disease. Click here to see what the symptoms are and possible treatments for them.


Fibrocartilaginous Embolism

Fibrocartilaginous embolism is quite a mouthful so we usually just call it "FCE." FCE is a disease primarily of dogs leading to a sudden neurologic weakness or paralysis, usually after an excercise injury. The symptoms are generally permanent. This page has more details about diagnosis and treatment options.



We want everyone to enjoy being with their pets. While flatulence is often presented as a humorous topic, it also serves as a barrier to the human animal bond. Here are some tips that may bring the family back together.


Flea Anemia

We all know fleas are a nuisance and can lead to itching and dermatitis, but did you know a heavy flea infestation can be life threatening? The owners of most victims were not aware of the problem. Read more about this condition and who’s most at risk.


Food Allergies

Have an itchy pet all year round? Maybe there is a food allergy. Just changing to a new diet probably won’t be enough. Find out what to do here and see if your pet fits the profile for this condition.


Fur-Mowing (Feline)

Got a cat with a large balding spot? Wondering why the fur is falling out? Chances are excellent that the fur isn't falling out at all; it is being licked off instead. Is the cat anxious? Obsessive? Maybe, but it’s likely that the cat is just plain itchy. There is generally a medical approach to this problem. For details, check out this page.



Giardia is a protozoan parasite that can infect both humans and pets. It causes an unpleasant diarrhea and until recently was particularly difficult to detect (a new in-house test kit has made diagnosis much more simple, not to mention faster and less costly). This page has more information on this parasite and its management.



This is a big word for a big disease. Glomerulonephritis means inflammation of the microscopic kidney units called "glomeruli:" the filtration units of the kidney. This may not mean much to the average pet owner but this pages serves as an important resource for an owner whose pet has this disease. This is a special kidney disease where the precious blood proteins leak away into the urine where they are lost out in the lawn, litter box, or dog park. Check out this page for more information.


Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME)

Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis is a frustrating disease given the lack of known information about this condition and the poor response to therapy. We have been contacted by several people having difficulty obtaining any information at all on the web regarding this condition so we have attempted to formulate a summary. We sincerely hope you are reading this out of academic interest only, rather than out of need to help your pet. Here is what information we have been able to assemble.


Long Term Heart Failure Therapy

Heart failure is obviously an emergency. Once we have revived a pet’s heart, however, what can be done to prevent another episode? Visit this page to read about several long term therapy options.


Heartworm Disease

Heartworm is a very serious problem in many areas of the country. Here is a site that attempts to answer all your questions about the disease, its treatment and its prevention.


Helicobacter Infection

This bacterium is not new but focus on it by both the veterinary and human medical community certainly is. The role of Helicobacter in stomach ulcer formation is now well recognized. If you have a pet with chronic nausea, you may want to be familiar with this infection.



No matter where this tumor is found, it is bad news. Hemangiosarcoma is a blood vessel cancer that is highly malignant and usually a challenge to treat. At least one form is curable with surgery if caught early. Will you know it if you see it?



Hemivertebrae are deformed vertebrae most commonly found in Bulldogs and their relatives. When everything goes right, they are confined to the tail to create the breed characteristic "screw tail" but when things go wrong, they lead to spinal deformity.


Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis (HGE)

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis is a life-threatening disease of the dog, particularly small hyperactive dogs. Prognosis is poor without hospitalization as the patient succumbs to shock from the massive diarrhea fluid loss. What should you know? Read this page to find out.


Hepatic Lipidosis

Cats were not designed to ever get fat. Their metabolism was geared towards multiple small prey meals a day. Domestication has changed their lifestyle but not their physiology, and when a cat stops eating, liver failure is not far away. Why? This page explains the details.


Herpes Infection (Canine)

Did you know that a pregnant female dog should have no contact with any other dogs in the final 3 weeks of pregnancy? This is because a simple infection (that leaves no symptoms in the mother) will wipe out the litter of puppies before they are even born. The risk extends for three weeks after birth as well. Read on to learn more.


Herpes Viral Conjunctivitis (Feline)

Herpes is responsible for approximately 50% of feline upper respiratory infections (colds) but, as many of us have heard, Herpes is a permanent infection with stress bringing out flare-ups. This is a common problem, especially for cats with a rescue or shelter history in their kitten hood. Find out more here.


High Blood Pressure in Pets

High blood pressure is an extremely important concern in human medicine. High stress lifestyle, smoking, and high salt diet all contribute to this potentially dangerous condition and virtually everyone in the U.S. knows how serious it can be. But what about our pets? They don’t smoke or worry about the mortgage and they don’t deposit cholesterol in their blood vessels. They do, however, get high blood pressure, especially in age and here is what you probably should know.


Hip Dislocation

It takes a great deal of force to dislocate a normal hip (and maybe not so much force for an abnormal hip) and some skill to put the hip back together the way it is supposed to be. There is actually a window of opportunity after which it becomes nearly impossible to get the bones back in place without surgery. And how does one keep the hip from coming back out again? This page has details on the dislocated ("luxated") hip.


Hip Dysplasia

This condition accounts for 30% of all orthopedic cases in veterinary medicine and is an absolute scourge to large breed dogs. Every owner of a large breed dog should know this disease as there is an excellent chance their pet will be affected sooner or later. Click here for a review of this condition.



Hookworms are one of the top four intestinal parasites of young dogs (the others being roundworms, whipworms and tapeworms). They can cause a life-threatening blood loss in puppies, plus they are infectious to human beings. Learn more than you may want to from this page.


Horner's Syndrome

Slight squint, small pupil, raised third eyelid... it all looks pretty strange, as if something is wrong with the eye. In fact, it is not the eye itself that is the problem, but rather it is a nerve problem. Read more about this symptom and its causes.


Hot Spots

"Hot spots" are common problems, especially for dogs, but what exactly are they? These angry skin lesions are actually created by the pet, sometimes in a matter of minutes. Most dogs get them some time or another but what should you do about them? Read on to find out.


House Soiling (Feline)

Does your cat seem to forget where the real litter box is and instead use the "imaginary" litter box in the middle of the living room rug? This could be caused by medical or behavioral problems. Here are some methods of dealing with the causes.



This condition literally means "water head" and is more commonly referred to as "water on the brain." The central nervous system is bathed in cerebrospinal fluid which is secreted by chambers inside the brain. When fluid builds up, there is no room in the brain for extra volume and disaster can result. This condition is particularly common in dome-headed puppies. Check out this page for more information.



An elevated blood calcium is a damaging metabolic change and usually bodes a serious underlying disease. The testing sequence is complicated and not inexpensive. Here is a page to help it make sense.


Hyperesthesia Syndrome (Feline)

Hyperesthesia syndrome, also called "rolling skin disease," involves extreme sensitivity of cats to their backs and often tails. There is twitching, excessive grooming, and sometimes even self mutilation or seizures. Sometimes itching seems to precipitate involuntary grooming behaviors. What's a cat owner to do? This page has some options.


Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (Feline)

The most common heart disease in the cat is called "hypertrophic cardiomyopathy" and involves thickening of the heart muscle to the point of inflexibility and compromised filling capacity. Many cats are not diagnosed until they go into heart failure and many cats are diagnosed when they are completely without symptoms. What treatment makes sense for which cats? There is a great deal of controversy when it comes to therapy. Read this page for more information.


Hypocalcemia (Hypoparathyroidism)

Calcium is very important in the contraction of muscles; not just the skeletal muscles we use for voluntary motion but our hearts as well. Blood calcium levels are tightly regulated within a specific range by a number of hormone systems. This page explains the diagnosis and treatment of Hypoparathyroidism, the derangement of one of these systems leading to seizures and potentially death if untreated.


Toy Breed Hypoglycemia

It doesn't get much cuter than a puppy. It seems like the smaller, the cuter. But there are aspects of being that small that aren't so cute, like difficulty in keeping blood sugar in the normal range. Many adopters are captivated by the adorable toy breed puppy but are unprepared for its special needs. This page provides more details.


Hyperthyroidism (Thyroid)

Do you have an older cat with a weight loss problem despite an excellent appetite? Has hyperthyroidism been diagnosed but you have questions about the different treatments? This area attempts to provide a complete resource on this subject.


Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
External Link

When a cat develops a heart murmur, this abnormal heart muscle condition is one of the most important diseases to rule out.  It can produce heart failure, painful blood clots, and even sudden death. Find out what you need to know in this external link.



Hypothyroidism is the most common hormone imbalance of the dog. While it would seem like it would be a simple subject, there are enough complexities to have kept it out of our Pet Web Library until now. Come see what you've been missing. (Sorry, no graphics at this time - we’ll add some soon).


Ibuprofen Toxicity

Ibuprofen is a common human pain reliever and its over-the-counter status has made it readily available in households all over the U.S. Pets unfortunately get exposed by playing with bottles left within reach or when well-meaning owners attempt to treat their pet's discomfort. The resulting toxicity can easily be life-threatening. NEVER GIVE YOUR PET MEDICATION WITHOUT SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO DO SO FROM YOUR VETERINARIAN. Ibuprofen is just one example of a readily available human medication generally safe for people but dangerous for pets. Visit this page for more details.


Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia (IMHA)

We depend on red blood cells to bring oxygen to our tissues (and carry waste gases away). Without enough red blood cells we die. We can lose blood cells from bleeding, but sometimes our immune system gets confused and destroys them by mistake. What can we do when this happens? Read on for the details.


Immune-Mediated Platelet Destruction

The immune system guards us against invaders but sometimes it gets confused and attacks one’s own cells. Platelets are blood cells involved in blood clotting and can be victims of this phenomenon. Read on for more details.



Most of us know someone who periodically receives "allergy shots" to control allergy symptoms. The good news is that immunotherapy also works for dogs and cats. The catch is that the owner will probably need to give the injections on their own and that results can take many months to be realized. Want to know more? Here are some instructions and what you can expect.


Infiltrative Bowel Disease

Chronic intestinal disease in the cat can involve appetite loss, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, vomiting, weight loss and debilitation. The intestinal tract does not lend itself to blood test evaluation so where does one go if intestinal disease is likely? Infiltration of the bowel by lymphocytes is a common feature of the most common causes of chronic intestinal disease in the cat. Read this article for more information on the diagnostic approach.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Does your pet seem to have chronic vomiting or diarrea? Here’s an FAQ (a list of Frequently Asked Questions) about a possible cause.


Influenza (Canine)

After a barrage of emails, news reports, and bulletins sweeping the internet in late September 2005, we have decided to put together an FAQ about this infection. While it is true that most dogs are susceptible to infection, mortality is 5-8% rather than the more dramatic figures quoted by some alarmist emails. This virus is to be respected, as should be the human influenza virus. Separate the fact from the myth by reading this article.



Insulin gets most of its attention as the treatment for diabetes in humans as well as pets. It is a hormone responsible for removing extra sugar from the bloodstream and getting it stored in starch and fat deposits. It is normally produced in the pancreas. Unfortunately, sometimes the cells that produce insulin become cancerous and produce vast amounts of insulin. The diagnosis and treatment can be tricky. Read on for details.


Intervertebral Disk Disease

The intervertebral disks are special joints that connect vertebrae allowing for the back to be flexible. When disks become diseased, pain, loss of function and even paralysis can result. Surgery is expensive and invasive; in some circumstances represents the only meaningful chance for recovery; however, surgery is a waste of money in other circumstances. Patients with less severe signs can often be managed with strict rest and medication. How is this all sorted out? Visit this page for more details.


Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

"Protein-losing Enteropathy" is a fancy way of saying there is something wrong with the intestine and/or stomach such that protein is being lost from the body through the intestine and/or stomach. This is a serious problem as the body’s proteins are not easily replaced and the only way to replace them involves the absorption of protein constituents (the amino acids that make up proteins) from the intestine.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

It is easy to confuse IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) and IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) particularly when some forms of IBD produce identical symptoms as IBS. Still, these are two completely different conditions and it is important not to mix them up when treating a pet's diarrhea.


Itch Relief

A collection of suggestions to relieve a pet’s itchy skin without the use of cortisone derivatives is presented.


Kennel Cough
In the Vaccine Mezzanine

Infectious Tracheobronchitis, commonly known as Kennel Cough, is a complex of infections, rather than infection by a single agent. Find out how infection occurs, how serious it may be, how it is treated and how it is vaccinated against.


Kidney Failure

This is an especially common problem among geriatric pets and, as treatment frequently is long term, it is important for owners to understand their options. Topics discussed at this site include: Medications used in treatment, diagnostics/helpful testing and monitoring, and how to get involved with other on-line resource groups. An external link to the Chronic Renal Failure Information Center is also provided.


Kidney Transplant in Pets
In the Surgery Suite

It is possible for a pet to have a kidney transplant from a healthy donor. This is not a simple procedure by any means and requires not only adoption of the donor, but immune-suppressive medications for the life of the recipient. The undertaking is expensive (several thousand dollars) but for the right patient it can mean the gift of life. Visit this page in The Surgery Suite for more information.


Laryngeal Paralysis

Laryngeal paralysis is a life-threatening progressive disease of older large breed dogs causing air way obstruction (inability to breathe) after usually a fairly long history of exercise intolerance and noisy breathing. If you own a large dog you should be familiar of the signs of this condition so that it is not allowed to progress to a respiratory crisis. Treatment is one of several surgical procedures, but these are not without potential for complications. This page will help you learn more about these options.


Linear Foreign Body

Pets, especially younger ones, have the unfortunate tendency to eat things they shouldn't and we aren't talking about food. Toys, socks, rocks and other materials find their way into pet stomachs but when the foreign body is a string, the consequences are especially dire. Read on for more information on this subject.


In the Vaccine Mezzanine

This is one infection that can be caught by humans as well as by canines. Read about the leptospira organism, and how we test, treat and vaccinate against the disease (in dogs, that is).



The "fatty tumor" is a common, although somewhat shape-altering benign growth common in older dogs and somewhat rare in cats. They can achieve quite dramatic sizes but the question of whether or not to remove one is often confusing. Visit this page if you would like more information on this subject.


Liver Tumors and Cancers

Liver tumors can arise distantly and spread to the liver or arise in the liver directly. Liver tumors can be benign or malignant, can vary in shape and configuration (which determines whether or not surgery is helpful), and they can arise from different tissue types within the liver. Prognosis is determined by several factors. Visit this page to read about what types are common, what treatment is available, and what to expect.


Lyme Disease
In the Vaccine Mezzanine

Lyme disease has received so much press coverage that most people have some idea of what it is, but there is a tremendous confusion beyond the fact that it comes from tick bites. The disease situation in the dog is very different from that in humans, which makes matters even more confused. Should you vaccinate your dog? How worried should we be? The answers are not always black and white, but here is a summary of what is known.



This unpleasant intestinal disease is responsible for severe protein loss from the body and consequent wasting away. The good news is that it is treatable. Visit this page to learn more.


Lymphocytic Leukemia

There are many types of leukemia (blood cancers) and the lymphocytic leukemias are the most common There are two types of lymphocytic leukemia with two completely different outcomes and treatments. If you want to understand the diagnosis of lymphocytic leukemia, read the details of each type on this page.



This form of cancer, also called “lymphosarcoma,” is the most common malignancy of dogs, cats and humans. There is a plentitude of information available, information that is necessary in order to make intelligent decisions about an affected pet. Click here to find out more.


Malignant Melanoma

Malignant melanoma is a tumor of the pigment containing cells of the skin, toenail bed (especially in black dogs), mucous membranes, and/or eye. Meaningful treatment requires early intervention, typically entailing aggressive surgery. Recently a vaccine has been developed to stimulate the patient's own immune system to destroy the cancer. For more information on this devastating cancer, click here.


Marijuana Intoxication

Marijuana is the most popular illegal recreational drug. What happens when a dog or cat finds a “stash” and weren’t taught to “just say no?” Will they just be harmlessly “stoned,” or are there more severe health consequences? Read the information presented here for more information.


Mast Cell Tumors

The mast cell is an important inflammatory cell involved in the symptoms of allergy. When the mast cell goes tumorous the inflammation may go body-wide, yet they are not rare by any means (in dogs nearly 20% of all skin tumors are mast cell tumors).


Masticatory Myositis

Imagine not being able to open your mouth. Food must be lapped gingerly. Muscles of the face atrophy. This condition is immune-mediated but luckily treatable. This page has an explanation for you, including tests and treatments.



Do you know the difference between vomiting and regurgitation? If your pet has megaesophagus you probably know all too well. Read about the latest in treatment and testing (and see a graphic interactive demonstration).



This brain tumor is probably the most common cause of seizures in dogs over age six years of age.. Read on to find out more about it’s signs, the tests that can be done and several treatment options.



A microchip ID is a small transmitter about the size of a grain of rice. When a scanner passes over it, a signal is emitted indicating the unique identification number of the chip. This tiny but sturdy little implant can reunite you with a lost pet, mean the difference serve as proof of ownership in a dispute, or even mean the difference between euthanasia and medical care in an emergency.


Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia gravis is a disease causing muscle weakness, and often megaesophagus. This is a classical condition interfering with the communication between nerves and muscles. Prognosis depends heavily on early diagnosis. For more details, click here.


Neonatal Isoerythrolysis in Kittens

Neonatal isoerythrolysis is the condition in newborns where red blood cells are destroyed by their mother’s immune system. There are many similarities to Rh disease of humans, and prevention is completely dependent on knowing parental blood types. This page will provide more details.


Nicotine (Cigarette) Poisoning in Pets

A cigarette butt may seem like a fun toy to a puppy or kitten but that small amount of remaining tobacco actually contains 25% of the nicotine contained in the entire original cigarette. Cigarettes don't have to be smoked to be hazardous. This page covers the symptoms and treatment for nicotine poisoning.


Nose Bleeds (Epistaxis)

Epistaxis comes from the Greek word "stazo" meaning "falling in drops." What it means in English is a bloody nose. In younger pets, it is usually caused by a trauma or foreign body but in older pets tumors are common. A step by step diagnostic process is needed to sort the possible causes out. To read about the general testing procedure, visit this page on bloody noses.


Notoedric Mange

Dogs get sarcoptic mange but what do cats get? It turns out they have their very own mange mite: Notoedres Cati. Notoedric mange is a rarity worldwide and many veterinary dermatologists never see a single case in their entire careers. Notoedric mange exists in small regional “hotbeds,” one of which happens to be the Greater Los Angeles area. Our hospital normally sees at least one confirmed case a month, usually in outdoor or shelter cats. Visit this page for an explanation and pictures.


Obesity In Pets

Obesity has become an extremely important health problem in the Western world, not just for humans but for dogs and cats as well. Obesity is associated with joint problems, diabetes mellitus, respiratory compromise, and decreased life span in dogs and cats with recent estimations suggesting that up to 35% of dogs and cats in the U.S. suffering from obesity.


Orphan Puppy & Kitten Care

Just in time for Spring and kitten season. If you have some unexpected additions to your family and are not sure what to do, here is an information sheet explaining orphan care.


Osteosarcoma (Canine)

Osteosarcoma is by far the most common bone tumor of the dog. We see 2 - 3 cases a year, but we’ve not found much information on the internet providing the details that an owner would need to make proper treatment decisions. If you have questions about canine osteosarcoma, here are some answers.



Many people have heard of the pancreas but are not sure what it does, where it is, or what a disaster it can be when it gets inflamed. In the dog, pancreatitis is a frequently life-threatening classical disease. Pancreatitis in the cat was hardly described in even the most complete textbooks ten years ago as we did not have adequate technology to evaluate the pancreas in the cat. Visit this page to link to the canine or feline pancreatitis information.



Panosteitis is what is called a "developmental bone disease" which means it is a disease of adolescence. It causes a painful lameness that often changes legs. While the cause of this disease remains a mystery, diagnosis turns out to be fairly straight-forward and the condition resolves on its own given time. Read on for more information.


Care of the Paralyzed Animal

When a beloved pet becomes paralyzed in the rear legs, quality of life issues come to the forefront. For the dedicated owner, caring for the “downer” pet does not have to be a “downer.” This article reviews the special needs of the paralyzed animal and features helpful products.


In the Vaccine Mezzanine

Our Canine Parvovirus Information Center has several pages devoted to information explaining the disease, how your dog may contract it and how to care for dogs that have been infected.


Pemphigus Foliaceus

The Pemphigus complex of skin diseases represent immune-mediated destruction of different layers o the epidermis. Pemphigus foliaceus is the most common. Crusts and ulcers on the face and feet are classic lesions in both the dog and cat and patience is required for treatment. Read on for more details.


Perianal Fistulae

Most pet owners are not familiar with the view under their dog's tail and never need to be. Other than the occasional anal sac expression most dog owners never need to worry much about that area BUT things may be different for the German shepherd dog owner. The anal ulceration that goes with this condition may not be a common problem but at least 80% of affected dogs are German shepherds. The dog will lick under the tail, perhaps have odor or pain, and may strain to defecate. What to do? First take a look then see the vet and consider reading this page for more information.


Periodontal Disease & Dental Home Care

Periodontal disease affects approximately 80% of dogs and cats by age 3 years. We all see commercials for mouthwashes and special toothpastes for ourselves, so we have some idea about plaque and gingivitis. Check out this page to see how this concerns our pets and to find out what to do about it.


Plasma Cell Pododermatitis

Easy to recognize but not as easy to understand, this condition is often called "pillow foot" in cats for reasons that are obvious from the graphic presented. This condition is described as rare. Most cats do not require treatment. Read more about this condition here.


Plasma Cell Stomatitis (Feline)

Plasma Cell Stomatitis (also called "lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis or LPS" is a chronic, very painful oral disease of the cat. The mouth bleeds, stinks from infection, and/or grows painful proliferations from the gums. In many cases medical management is adequate but in many cases surgical intervention is needed. Click here to find out more.


Pneumonia Management

Our Canine Parvovirus Information Center has several pages devoted to Pneumonia, another name for deep inflammation in the lung, which can occur as a complication of many primary diseases. This article reviews the basics of pneumonia treatment and what to expect should your pet develop bacterial pneumonia.


Care of the Pregnant Dog

Puppies on the way? Not sure what to do now? Prenatal care comes first, but what does that entail for dogs? Read here to find out, and don't forget to check our sister page on Labor and Puppy Birth.


Pregnancy Termination

Accidents happen. Unwanted pregnancy in one's pet can be a big inconvenience, a hazard to the pet, as well as a contribution to an extremely over-populated world. There are choices to be made and we will tell you what they are. Click here for more information.


Pulmonic Stenosis

Pulmonic stenosis is a common congenital heart defect in the dog. It can manifest as a minor problem of minor interest or can be a devastating cause of heart failure. Therapy is available for the severe cases for whom it is necessary. Read this page for more information.


Puppy Strangles

Puppy strangles is a classic but fortunately uncommon disease of puppies under age 4 months. It causes acute swelling of the muzzle as well as blistering pimples on the face and inner ear flaps. If left untreated it can be fatal and despite the extreme inflammation, infection is not the problem. To learn more click here.



Most of us know our heart and lungs are inside the chest cavity, but we don't give much thought to the empty space in the chest cavity that is not taken up by organs. This space is called the "pleural space" and as it is normally small and lubricated by a small amount of moisture; it is normally not worth much thought. This changes when the balance of fluid drainage in the pleural space is altered. Fluid build up in the pleural space means less space for the lungs to expand into. In this article, we explore the build-up of pus in the pleural space, a life-threatening infection. For details click here.


Rat Poison (Anticoagulant Rodenticides)

Mankind has been battling rodents for thousands of years and the anticoagulant rodenticides are currently among the more commonly used methods of rodent pest control. But what happens when the family dog or cat eats a poisoned rat or eats the poison directly? This page will explain what to watch for.


Rat Poison (Bromethalin-based Rodenticide)

Rodents and humans have been at odds for thousands of years. With common anticoagulant rat poisons such as D-Con becoming less available commercially, bromethalin products have captured the market. These have no direct antidote. If you choose to use these products, please be aware of the signs of poisoning in pets.


In the Vaccine Mezzanine

Rabies is a very serious disease, but fortunately it can also be easily prevented in dogs and cats by proper vaccination. Click here for more information on exactly what this disease entails and how it works, including an animated demonstration of how rabies affects humans.


Rattlesnake Bites in California

How many poisonous snakes call California their homes? It turns out they are all rattlesnakes, and there are eight types. Dogs encounter snakes during play or work and often end up with venomous bite as a result. What do you need to know about this situation? Read this article to find out.



Not a worm at all but really a fungal infection of the skin. Contagious to humans, too. Got questions? Here is an FAQ area for you.



This common parasite can cause diarrhea and vomiting in cats and dogs, and some pet owners become very concerned when their pet expels a worm up to seven inches in length! Roundworms are also one of the few dog or cat parasites that can be dangerous when transmitted to humans. Visit this mini-site for information on Roundworms in Dogs & Puppies, in Cats & Kittens and in Humans.


Runny Eyes

Many dogs and cats have tear-stained faces from chronic excessive tears. Why is this and why is this problem considered one of the hardest to solve in veterinary ophthalmology? What can be done? This web page reviews the problem.


Safe Gardening

Gardening is a relaxing pastime enjoyed by many people and many people allow pets in their garden. The garden shops and catalogs are full of gorgeous garden shrubs and flowers. They tell us how to water and how much sunshine is needed, but rarely do they tell us if the plant is safe in case your pet chews it up. 


Sarcoptic Mange

Also called “scabies,” this mite infection is extremely itchy and contagious. While difficult to diagnose, this condition is usually easy to treat. Click here for more information.


Seasonal Flank Alopecia

Seasonal Flank Alopecia is a condition where a dog's hair falls out in the flank area for one season a year only to grow back when the seasons change. While this condition is puzzling at least it is a cosmetic problem only and there is treatment. Check out this page for more information.


Sebaceous Adenitis

Everyone has heard skin described as “dry,” “oily,” or “normal” referring to the amount of natural oil on the skin surface. The oils of the skin are important moisturizers (holding water inside the skin and preventing its evaporation). The oil also acts as a protection barrier keeping irritants or even infectious organisms off the skin cells below.


Seizure Disorder

Always unpleasant and can represent an emergency. Fortunately there is treatment. Read on for options.


Separation Anxiety

Sometimes pets love too much. The hyper-attached dog not only follows its owner from room to room, but becomes vocal, anxious and even destructive when left alone. Complicating the situation are other behavior problems that cause destructive behavior. Where to start? Try reading this article.


Shar-Pei Special Concerns & Cautions

In Chinese “Shar-pei” means “dog with sandy coat.” There is a lot to these wrinkly exotic dogs. Click here for information.


Shar-Pei Recurrent Fever

As the name implies, the syndrome is characterized by fevers that seem to arise out of no where, run their course, and may or may not be responsive to anti-inflammatory medications. The dog will feel bad during the fever episodes: listless and without appetite.


Snail Bait Poisoning

Many gardens have snail problems in the Springtime and many gardens have pets. Snail Bait poisoning is the most common intoxication in California for dogs, largely because snail bait is commonly pelleted and flavored. Our hospital strongly discourages the use of metaldehyde based snail control products as they have tremendous potential to do damage. For more information click here.


Squamous Cell Carcinoma

The oral squamous cell carcinoma does not spread as one normally thinks of a cancer spreading but it is so locally invasive that its presence carries a poor prognosis. The only hope of good survival comes from early detection. read on to learn what to look for and what the important risk factors are.


Chronic Steroid Use

There has never been a class of drug that has more application in disease treatment than the glucocorticoid class. Indeed, this group is rivaled only by antibiotics in lives saved. But side effects from the glucocorticoid group are numerous and can be classified into those seen with short-term use and those seen in long-term use. Read up on both here.


Subaortic Stenosis

Subaortic stenosis is the most common congenital heart disease in large breed dogs. It involves a scar-like band in the left ventricle just below the aortic valve, right where blood must rush out of the heart to meet the body's metabolic needs. The heart must overwork in order to push all the necessary blood through the narrowing. This page has more information on what this means to the patient.


Subcutaneous Fluid Administration at Home

Lots of animals require extra fluids, either temporarily or indefinitely, to insure that they receive adequate hydration. The technique is simple, but sometimes daunting to the beginner. Here is a pictured guide to assist with the learning experience of giving subcutaneous fluids to your pet at home, and to serve as a handy reference.



Syringomyelia doesn't exactly roll off one's tongue and neither does its closest human equivalent "Chiari malformation." Still, if you are contemplating ownership of a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, this is a word you should know. Learn more here.



Tapeworms are common where ever there are fleas but did you know there is a tapeworm that comes from raw meat or carrion? Visit this page on Taenia Hydatigena to learn more about this creature.


Tails That are Broken (Feline)

Sacrocaudal fractures are dislocations in the tail near where the tail joins the body. One might expect pain and external injury to be the main concern but instead the problems are neurologic. Visit this page for more information.



Noticing “grains of rice” that move? Something that looks like sesame seeds in your pet’s bedding? Where do tapeworms come from and why do they come back? Click here and find out.


Tetanus in Pets

We have all heard of about getting tetanus shots and being careful about rusty nails, but most people do not really know much about tetanus (also called "lock-jaw"). In fact, pets are fairly resistant to infection (which is why tetanus shots are not included in the standard vaccine series). So what should a dog owner know about tetanus? Visit this page to find out.


Thyroid Carcinoma

The two thyroid glands are located in the throat, nestled just behind the larynx on either side of the windpipe. These glands are responsible for making and storing thyroid hormones.


Toxic Plants
External Link

This external link was put together by Cornell University to review common household and garden plants which might be toxic to our pets. Common and scientific names of plants are listed and graphics are included. An excellent site for any pet owner to review.


Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy

Got questions? We have answers plus some additional links to go with them.


Tracheal Collapse

A long-standing harsh cough in a toy breed dog is highly suggestive of this condition, where the windpipe itself becomes flimsy. Treatment can involve surgery or just medication, as well as some lifestyle changes (such as weight loss or reduction in ambient cigarette smoke). Any owner of a tiny canine ought to at least become familiar with this all too common condition. Read here for more details.


Transitional Cell Carcinoma

Bloody urine, straining, and discomfort usually means something simple like a bladder infection but sometimes the worst case scenario comes to pass and cancer is present. The Transitional Cell Carcinoma is the most common form of bladder cancer. Visit this page to find out about how it is detected and treated.


Transmissible Venereal Tumor

Imagine getting a mosquito bite and growing a new mosquito off your body at the site of the bite. Sounds weird but this is essentially how the Transmissible Venereal Tumor spreads: by touch. The Transmissible Venereal Tumor is a tumor that implants itself on to anyone (any dog, that is) that touches it. Visit this page for more information.



Dogs are often brought in for tremoring or shivering episodes. The patient can be any age or any size. Tremors can involve only certain muscles or body areas or the entire dog. Finding the reason behind tremors is very tricky as tremoring occurs for many reasons.


Tritrichomonas Blagburni

Tritrichomonas blagburni is a single-celled infectious organism that causes diarrhea in cats. Diagnosis and treatment can be challenging as well as rewarding. This page has more information on this hard to pronounce parasite.


Urinary Incontinence

The urine leaking dog or cat is a very big household problem, yet most people do not realize this is often a simple problem to cure. Some testing is best to rule out infections but most cases are dried up with simple medications. Visit this page for more details about various causes and their indicated medications and therapies.


Urinary Tract Infection

The urinary tract infection is one of the most common issues in small animal practice, yet many pet owners are confused. Some common questions we hear are: Are bladder infections contagious? Why do I have to use the entire course of antibiotics if my pet is obviously better after a couple of doses? What is the difference between doing a urinalysis and urine culture? Why should both be done? In this article we attempt to address these items and more.


Valley Fever

Coccidiodomycosis, more commonly referred to as “Valley Fever,” is a fungal disease of pets (and people) living in the Southwest U.S., Mexico or some areas of South America. Treatment commonly requires months, even years. Read this article to find out more about this unpleasant infection.


Vascular Accident in the Brain

Most people have heard of "strokes" and know that it has to do with some kind of nerve damage. Pets get strokes as well, though not as often as people do. Check out this page to find out more about what a stroke might mean for a pet.


Vestibular Disease

Most people think their pet has had a stroke, but in fact a problem with the vestibular apparatus is to blame. What does this mean? Click here to find out.


Viral Papillomas (Canine)

Most everyone knows that dogs get warts, but did you know that some of these “warts” are infectious? Find out what they are and how to deal with them here.


VKH Syndrome

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-Like syndrome in dogs (also called "Uveodermatologic Syndrome") affects both the skin and eyes of affected dogs, mostly Nordic breeds and Akitas but any breed can be affected. Eye pain and inflammation is followed by a whitening of the hair that can be complete. Read this page for more information about this syndrome.


Von Willebrand's Disease

Everyone has heard of Hemophilia and knows it is an inherited blood clotting problem. Not everyone has heard of von Willebrand's disease, which is the most common inherited blood clotting disorder of the dog. Is your breed at risk? This page explains more and shows which breeds are most likely affected.



The "big four" intestinal parasites of the dog are: roundworms, tapeworms, hookworms and whipworms. We complete our series with the addition of the whipworm (Trichuris vulpis) to our library. This common parasite is particularly hard to detect and causes a bloody, mucous diarrhea in dogs.


Wound Healing

Wear and tear on the body is sure to create wounds, some mild, some surgical and some severe and traumatic. The body is designed to heal damaged tissue regardless of what caused the initial injury and we can help this process by using proper wound disinfection, tissue protection, and trimming. This page explains more about what happens when different types of wounds are healing.


Xylitol Toxicity

Sugar substitutes are big business for people, but not always safe for pets. Xylitol is a common sugar substitute especially in sugarless chewing gum but it is lethal to dogs in relatively small amounts. Read on to find out what you should know.


Yeast Infection of the Skin

Technically known as Malessezia Dermatitis, this is one of the stinkiest and itchiest conditions treated in veterinary dermatology, and it is one of the chief reasons a previously well-controlled allergic dog might suddenly increase itching. What to do? Find some answers here.


Zinc Poisoning

Now that pennies are made of zinc instead of copper, swallowing them can be harmful to your pet. To find out more about this syndrome (officially known as zinc induced hemolytic anemia), click here.

Page last reviewed: 2/22/2022