(for veterinary information only)
HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
Thanks to work by Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), Howard Florey ( 1898-1968) and Ernst Chain (1906-1979), penicillin was first produced on a large scale for human use in 1943. At that time, the development of a pill that could reliably kill bacteria was remarkable and many lives were saved during World War II because this medication was available.
But quickly, it became obvious that this new "wonder drug" could bear improvement. For example:
Amoxicillin represents a synthetic improvement upon the original penicillin molecule. Amoxicillin is better able to resist damage from stomach acid so less of an oral dose is wasted. While it is still susceptible to destruction by staphylococcal enzymes, it does have a much broader spectrum against the Gram negative cell wall and is able to last a bit longer.
USES OF THIS MEDICATION
Amoxicillin is regarded as having a fairly broad spectrum against many bacteria thus it is used both on organisms known to be sensitive to it plus it is a good selection when the sensitivity of bacteria is unknown. It is especially helpful in anaerobic infections (those which grow without the benefit of oxygen). Typical uses might include:
It should be noted that staphylococcal infections are NOT sensitive to this medication with two exceptions:
the urine. The Staph protective enzymes are overwhelmed by the huge concentration of antibiotic and the Staph organism is killed.: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci. These bacteria have mutated, have less predictable sensitivity, and do not follow the above rules for Staph sensitivity. In event of a Methicillin-Resistant Staph infection, a culture is needed to determine the sensitivity of the organism.
INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DRUGS
When the organism in a serious infection cannot be isolated, a common strategy is to attempt to "cover" for all possible bacteria. Amoxicillin is frequently used in combination with other antibiotics for this purpose.
Clavulanic acid may be added to amoxicillin to increase amoxicillin's spectrum against staphylococcal bacteria.
Concurrent use of amoxicillin with methotrexate (an agent of cancer chemotherapy) can increase the toxicity of the methotrexate.
Some individuals experience nausea with this medication. Giving the medication with food seems to reduce this effect.
The oral suspension should be refrigerated, though if it is mistakenly left out of the refrigerator for one day, this is not a problem. The oral suspension should be discarded after 2 weeks.
Amoxicillin may be given with or without food.
Amoxicillin will cross the placenta in a pregnant patient but is felt to be safe for use during pregnancy.
The use of amoxicillin may cause some brands of urine dipsticks to falsely test positive for glucose.
Amoxicillin is what is called a "time dependent" antibiotic which means it must be doses on at specific intervals to maintain a therapeutic level in the body. Amoxicillin is given 2-3 times daily depending on the type of infection.
Page last updated: 12/31/2018