Mar Vista Animal Medical Center

3850 Grand View Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90066

(310)391-6741

www.marvistavet.com

OCLACITINIB MALEATE

(for veterinary information only)

 

BRAND NAME: APOQUEL

 

AVAILABLE AS:
3.6 mg, 5.4 mg, 16 mg
TABLETS

 

BACKGROUND

Diseases causing itchy skin abound in dogs. Rashes, hot spots, smelly yeast infections, seemingly endless chewing and scratching all contribute to reduced life quality for dogs as well as a barrier to the human-animal bond when people are reluctant to snuggle a stinky itchy pet. Assorted shampoos, steroid based sprays and ointments, injections and more have been available for decades. The JAK ("Janus Kinase") inhibitors represent a new way to address itching.

Most people are not familiar with the term "cytokine." A cytokine is a chemical released by a cell to message another cell. The message can be stimulatory or inhibitory and one cell releases a cytokine message may communicate its command to many other cells. Some cytokines act to stimulate the Janus Kinase enzymes, of which there are several. Janus Kinase-1 and Janus Kinase-3 trigger production of cytokines involved in inflammation and the perception of itch (at least in dogs). JAK inhibitors have use in human medicine as well for other chronic inflammatory situations.

 

HOW THIS MEDICATION IS USED

Oclacitinib maleate is used twice daily for 2 weeks and then dropped to a maintenance dose of once daily. It generally reduces itching very quickly (within 24 hours) and is felt to be as effective as corticosteroids (such as prednisolone.)

Oclacitinib maleate does not have a dramatic effect in every patient and some patients need more itch control. In this situation, it is best to use a second medication or treatment rather than returning to twice daily oclacitinib maleate or increasing the dose of oclacitinib maleate. To see more options for itch control click here.

SIDE EFFECTS

There are several caveats to the use of Oclacitinib maleate.

  • This medication is meant to control the symptoms of itching. For many patients, ending itching also ends scratching and chewing. Ending scratching and chewing ends infections and a vicious cycle can finally be broken. The problem is that while oclacitinb maleate can control itching, it does may not control the disease that is causing the itching. If there is an infection present, it will continue to be present; it simply will not be itchy. It is important not to let skin disease persist simply because the dog is comfortable. The disease must be controlled as well.

  • The oclacitinib maleate label contains a caution against use in patients with cancer. While oclacitinib maleate does not cause cancer, there is question about whether it can interfere with natural protective mechanisms that help control cancer. If a patient is known to have cancer or known to have an undefined growth on its body or if there is any reason to suspect a patient might be harboring cancer, it is important to discuss this caution with one's veterinarian before use of this medication.

  • Oclacitinib maleate appears to promote or support Demodex skin mites. It should not be used to control itching associated with Demodectic Mange.

INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DRUGS

Oclacitinib maleate is a new medication and no interactions with other drugs have been identified.

CONCERNS AND CAUTIONS

Only limited testing has been done regarding use in the cat. Oclacitinib maleate is labelled only for dogs over age 12 months.

 Page posted: 7/17/2019