(for veterinary information only)
BRAND NAME: APOQUEL
Diseases causing itchy skin abound in dogs. Rashes, hot spots, smelly yeast infections, seemingly endless chewing and scratching all contribute to reduced life quality for dogs as well as a barrier to the human-animal bond when people are reluctant to snuggle a stinky itchy pet. Assorted shampoos, steroid based sprays and ointments, injections and more have been available for decades. The JAK ("Janus Kinase") inhibitors represent a new way to address itching.
Most people are not familiar with the term "cytokine." A cytokine is a chemical released by a cell to message another cell. The message can be stimulatory or inhibitory and one cell releases a cytokine message may communicate its command to many other cells. Some cytokines act to stimulate the Janus Kinase enzymes, of which there are several. Janus Kinase-1 and Janus Kinase-3 trigger production of cytokines involved in inflammation and the perception of itch (at least in dogs). JAK inhibitors have use in human medicine as well for other chronic inflammatory situations.
HOW THIS MEDICATION IS USED
Oclacitinib maleate is used twice daily for 2 weeks and then dropped to a maintenance dose of once daily. It generally reduces itching very quickly (within 24 hours) and is felt to be as effective as corticosteroids (such as prednisolone.)
Oclacitinib maleate does not have a dramatic effect in every patient and some patients need more itch control. In this situation, it is best to use a second medication or treatment rather than returning to twice daily oclacitinib maleate or increasing the dose of oclacitinib maleate. To see more options for itch control click here.
Oclacitinib maleate may be given with or without food. It is not recommended for dogs under the age of one, nor for pregnant/lactating mothers. While it is not approved for use in cats, it has been used with success in cats.
Oclacitinib maleate should be stored at room temperature, protected from light.
If a dose is accidentally skipped, give it when it is remembered and time the next dose accordingly. Do not double up on dosing.
There are several caveats to the use of Oclacitinib maleate.
INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DRUGS
Both oclacitinib maleate and cyclosporine are used to control itching but their mechanisms are not compatible for long term use (greater than 3 weeks) together.
CONCERNS AND CAUTIONS
Oclacitinib maleate should not be used in patients with a history of cancer, severe infection or demodectic mange. Any new skin growths should be reported to the veterinarian promptly.
Monitoring lab work is commonly recommended for any medication in use longer than 6 months.
Short version (to help us comply with "Lizzie's Law")