WHAT IS LYMPHOMA
Lymphoma, also called “Lymphosarcoma,” is a highly malignant tumor of the lymph system.
Presumably you are here because your pet is suspected of having this form of cancer. Perhaps the diagnosis has already been confirmed. In either case, you want to know more and there turns out to be much more to know. Because lymphoma is a common form of cancer in humans, research and new development in this area abounds. Animal patients as well as human patients have benefited from this research. This web site serves as a primer to explain the basics of this condition and answer the most frequently asked lymphoma questions.
WHAT IS THE LYMPH SYSTEM?
The lymph system is represented by a network of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes through which foreign proteins and disease organisms are circulated. The lymph nodes serve as processing centers where these foreign substances may be presented to the cells of the immune system. There are many different types of immune-related cells; some produce antibodies, some circulate and destroy the foreign materials they encounter, some regulate the activity of other cells.
"Lymphocytes" are the primary cells of the lymph system and they act in the various ways mentioned. The lymph vessels serve as a circulatory path for lymphocytes in addition to serving as a collection system directing foreign substances toward the lymph nodes. Lymph vessels interface with the blood stream at several areas allowing lymphocytes greater area to patrol. In many ways, the lymph system is similar to a second circulatory system in the body, one that circulates lymph fluid instead of blood.
WHAT IS CANCER?
Cancer occurs when a normal cell “goes wrong.” Its normal regulatory processes disengage and it begins to divide quickly and without control. The organ to which the original cell belonged is destroyed as the cancer cells obliterate its structure. Other local tissues may also become invaded as the tumor cells grow inexorably into them.
Cancer cells break off the primary tumor and travel via blood or lymph vessels to new areas of the body. Wherever these cells lodge, they may start new tumors far from the original tumor but just as deadly. This process continues until there is not enough normal tissue left to sustain life. This form of cancer spread is called “metastasis.”
WHAT IS LYMPHOMA?
When lymphocytes become cancerous within a lymph node, the node swells and hardens. Malignant lymphocytes readily travel through the lymph vessels to other nearby lymph nodes. Soon all the nodes are enlarged. Ultimately, the bone marrow (where most blood cells are formed) is affected, the immune system is destroyed, and severe anemia and weakness claim the victim's life.
WITHOUT TREATMENT, ANIMALS WITH LYMPHOMA ARE EXPECTED
Most patients (especially dogs) are not feeling particularly sick at the time of diagnosis. It may be tempting to "hold off" on treatment until the pet seems more ill. Waiting can drastically reduce the chance for long-term survival; better remission quality is obtained if the patient is treated while he/she still feels healthy.
WHAT IS STAGING?
Cancer, including lymphoma is staged depending on how many body areas are involved. The more localized the cancer is, the lower the stage. The more areas are involved, the higher the stage. The stages of lymphoma are:
The good news is that response to treatment in Lymphoma is not affected by stage until the very last stage is reached.
Lymphoma staging also involves "substaging" which includes determining if the patient is feeling healthy (substage "a") or sick (substage "b"). Substage "a" carries a much better prognosis and response to treatment versus substage "b".
Obviously everyone wants to find their pet has potential for a long remission. This will mostly be determined by the what body part is involved, whether the patient feels sick or not, whether there are additional secondary problems (such as kidney failure as in renal lymphoma, or elevated blood calcium levels), and whether prior treatment might have made the tumor resistant to other treatments.
WHAT IS REMISSION?
Remission is the state where cancer is not detectable in the patient and the patient feels completely normal. Prolonged remission is the goal of cancer therapy which, for most lymphoma cases, means chemotherapy. This may sound intimidating but chemotherapy for pets is not the same experience as it is for humans. Nausea and hair loss are generally uncommon.
This means that there is an excellent chance of reducing the tumor to undetectable levels. How long a remission lasts depends on what protocol is used and a number of other factors. To learn more about where your pet fits into the statistics, please review the section on lymphoma in your pet's species (click the appropriate button to the left.) Numerous protocols are available and there is one to potentially fit every budget and every schedule.
FOR ANY PATIENT, THERE IS AN APPROXIMATELY 75% CHANCE
WHAT IS CURE?
Cure is the permanent removal of all traces of tumor such that no further treatment is needed. In effect, it is a permanent state of remission. While this is technically possible for your pet, it is more constructive and realistic to focus on increasing life quality. With lymphoma, remission is likely but cure is not. Treatment may be thought of as an exchange of only a short time with your pet for a substantially longer time with your pet. It is important to keep goals in proper perspective through the treatment of this cancer. The goal is a long remission, not a cure.
Page last updated: 9/1/2019