Mar Vista Animal Medical Center

3850 Grand View Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90066




Lymphoma, also called “Lymphosarcoma,” is a highly malignant tumor of the lymph system.
It is one of the most common forms of cancer in both humans and small animals.

Presumably you are here because your pet is suspected of having this form of cancer. Perhaps the diagnosis has already been confirmed. In either case, you want to know more and there turns out to be much more to know. Because lymphoma is a common form of cancer in humans, research and new development in this area abounds. Animal patients as well as human patients have benefited from this research. This web site serves as a primer to explain the basics of this condition and answer the most frequently asked lymphoma questions.

Lymphatic System of the Dog
Lymphatic System of the Dog
(Photocredit: Public Domain Graphic via Wikimedia Commons)



The lymph system is represented by a network of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes through which foreign proteins and disease organisms are circulated. The lymph nodes serve as processing centers where these foreign substances may be presented to the cells of the immune system. There are many different types of immune-related cells; some produce antibodies, some circulate and destroy the foreign materials they encounter, some regulate the activity of other cells.

"Lymphocytes" are the primary cells of the lymph system and they act in the various ways mentioned. The lymph vessels serve as a circulatory path for lymphocytes in addition to serving as a collection system directing foreign substances toward the lymph nodes. Lymph vessels interface with the blood stream at several areas allowing lymphocytes greater area to patrol. In many ways, the lymph system is similar to a second circulatory system in the body, one that circulates lymph fluid instead of blood.



Cancer occurs when a normal cell “goes wrong.” Its normal regulatory processes disengage and it begins to divide quickly and without control. These cells do not stop at barriers, nor do they stop growing when they outgrow their own blood supply. The divide over and over, taking over local tissues and escaping to spread to other body areas. The organ to which the original cell belonged is destroyed as the cancer cells obliterate its structure. Other local tissues may also become invaded as the tumor cells grow inexorably into them.

Cancer cells break off the primary tumor and travel via blood or lymph vessels to new areas of the body. Wherever these cells lodge, they may start new tumors far from the original tumor but just as deadly. This process continues until there is not enough normal tissue left to sustain life. This form of cancer spread is called “metastasis.”


Lymphoma for Beginners

When lymphocytes become cancerous within a lymph node, the node swells and hardens. Malignant lymphocytes readily travel through the lymph vessels to other nearby lymph nodes. When nearby nodes have been infiltrated, the cancerous lymphocytes continue their journey through the lymphatic system to distance lymph nodes. Soon all the nodes are enlarged. Other organs that harbor lymph tissues (liver, spleen and even the GI tract) can become infiltrated. Ultimately, the bone marrow (where most blood cells are formed) is affected, the immune system is destroyed, and severe anemia and weakness claim the victim's life.


Most patients (especially dogs) are not feeling particularly sick at the time of diagnosis. It may be tempting to "hold off" on treatment until the pet seems more ill. Waiting can drastically reduce the chance for long-term survival; better remission quality is obtained if the patient is treated while he/she still feels healthy.


Cancer, including lymphoma is staged depending on how many body areas are involved. The more localized the cancer is, the lower the stage. The more areas are involved, the higher the stage. The stages of lymphoma are:

  1. Stage I: involvement of a single lymph node
  2. Stage II: Stage II: involvement of lymph nodes on only one side of the diaphragm (in either only the front half or only the back half of the body)
  3. Stage III: Stage III: generalized involvement of peripheral lymph nodes, including both the cranial (above the waist) and caudal (below the waist) halves of the body
  4. Stage IV: involvement of liver and/or spleen
  5. Stage V: involvement of bone marrow, central nervous system or some other unusual location

The good news is that response to treatment in Lymphoma is not affected by stage until the very last stage is reached.

Lymphoma staging also involves "substaging" which includes determining if the patient is feeling healthy (substage "a") or sick (substage "b"). Substage "a" carries a much better prognosis and response to treatment versus substage "b".

Obviously everyone wants to find their pet has potential for a long remission. This will mostly be determined by the what body part is involved, whether the patient feels sick or not, whether there are additional secondary problems (such as kidney failure as in renal lymphoma, or elevated blood calcium levels), and whether prior treatment might have made the tumor resistant to other treatments.




Remission is the state where cancer is not detectable in the patient and the patient feels completely normal. (Note, this is different from "cure" where the cancer is considered gone forever.) Prolonged remission is the goal of cancer therapy which, for most lymphoma cases, means chemotherapy. This may sound intimidating but chemotherapy for pets is not the same experience as it is for humans. For example, nausea and hair loss are generally uncommon for pets. Keep in mind that humans want a remission measured in decades if possible and most pets only need several years. This makes chemotherapy a very different experience for pets.

Because lymphoma cells are very sensitive to chemotherapy medications, there is an excellent chance of reducing the tumor to undetectable levels. How long a remission lasts depends on what protocol is used and a number of other factors. To learn more about where your pet fits into the statistics, please review the section on lymphoma in your pet's species (click the appropriate button to the below.) Numerous protocols are available and there is one to potentially fit every budget and every schedule.




Cure is the permanent removal of all traces of tumor such that no further treatment is needed. In effect, it is a permanent state of remission. While this is technically possible for your pet, it is more constructive and realistic to focus on increasing life quality. With lymphoma, remission is likely but cure is not. Treatment may be thought of as an exchange of only a short time with your pet for a substantially longer time with your pet. It is important to keep goals in proper perspective through the treatment of this cancer. The goal is a long remission, not a cure.


To continue learning about Lymphoma, click the appropriate button below.



About Lymphoma
(Lymphoma Center Home Page)

What is Lymphoma?
(this page)

Lymphoma in Dogs

Lymphoma in Cats

Lymphoma in the Skin
Common Lymphoma
Chemotherapy Medications
Nutritional Therapy
Beyond Drugs


Page last updated: 10/7/2021